The Adoption Home Study Process

Adoption is a big decision. The adoption process has many parts, and a critical part of the process is the adoption home study.

Many states and the District of Columbia require all prospective adoptive parents to participate in an adoption home study process regardless of how they intend to adopt a child. There are several types of adoptions.

Prospective adoptive parents may choose to adopt a child out of the foster care system. Or they may choose a private adoption, often in coordination with the birth parents or birth family. International adoptions provide another path to adoption.

In each instance, the adoption agency must complete a home study and home inspection. Usually, the process has three purposes:

  • To educate and prepare the adoptive family for adoption
  • To gather information about the prospective parents that will help a social worker match the family with a child whose needs they can meet
  • To determine the fitness of the adoptive family, including a clean background check

This article discusses the common elements of the home study process, the home study report, and the benefits of the process. This article does not cover stepparent adoptions.

Home Studies: General Information

The home study process can be a source of anxiety to those considering adoption. They may fear they won't be "approved." Adoption agencies don't seek perfect parents. They seek real people to parent children and care for their well-being.

All parties involved in the adoption process—from the birth mother/biological parent to the caseworkers to the potential adoptive parents—want a good placement for the child. The home study helps ensure suitable placement.

Specific domestic adoption home study requirements and processes vary significantly from agency to agency and state to state. There are different requirements for intercountry adoption based on the child's country of origin.

Preparing for the Adoption Home Study

One way to manage any anxiety over the adoption home study process is preparation. Although part of the study requires a home visit by a social worker or a home study professional, there are many required documents you should gather in advance.

These documents include:

  • Financial statements
  • Autobiographical statements
  • References
  • Background information on household members
  • Birth certificates
  • Marriage licenses, if applicable

Your chosen adoption agency or home study service should provide a home study checklist to help you prepare for the home study.

Support groups are another way to ease anxiety. Connecting with other potential adoptive parents, including those who have completed the home study process, can be informative and comforting. Support groups are also a good source of post-placement support.

Elements of the Adoption Home Study Process

There's no set format that adoption agencies use to conduct home studies. However, many adoption agencies include the following steps in their home study process.


Many agencies have special training for prospective adoptive parents before or during the home study process. These trainings are often part of the foster care process since many foster parents go on to adopt. They help prospective parents better understand the needs of children waiting for families. Training can also help families decide what type of child or children they can parent most effectively. Some families may be more suitable for older children or a child with special needs.


The prospective parents will be interviewed several times by the social worker. These interviews help your social worker understand your family better and assist you with establishing an appropriate placement.

Home Visit

During a home visit, a social worker will examine your home to ensure your home meets the state's safety standards. A safe home should have working smoke alarms, clean water, and adequate space for each home. Any firearms in the house should be safely stored. The specific agency you work with can provide a detailed list of state-specific requirements.

Health Statements

Most agencies require prospective adoptive parents to have a physical exam. A severe health problem that affects life expectancy may complicate approval. If there are serious health issues, the prospective adoptive parent should have a plan for the adopted child in the event of their death.

Income Statement

A prospective parent must show financial responsibility. Income tax returns and pay stubs are two ways prospective parents can verify their income. A prospective parent does not have to be wealthy to adopt a child. They do need sufficient financial resources to provide for their family. The state may provide a stipend for children adopted out of the foster care system.

Background Checks

Criminal background checks and child abuse record clearances, for all adoptive and foster parent applicants and members of their households, are required in most states. Background checks will include a criminal history covering every place the prospective parent lived. They must also submit their fingerprints for a Federal Bureau of Investigation fingerprint check.

Everyone in the household and frequent visitors (including family members) to the home should complete a background check. The adoption agency is responsible for placing the child in a safe home.

Although adoption laws vary from state to state, those with a history of child abuse, neglect, or maltreatment cannot adopt. Felonies such as capital murder, kidnapping, rape, and felony adult abuse are other bars to adoption. Many states will check sex offender or child abuse registries as part of their background checks.

Autobiographical Statement

Many adoption agencies ask prospective adoptive parents to write an autobiographical statement. This statement is your life story up to your decision to adopt. This statement helps the social worker better understand your family. It also assists them in writing the home study report (see below).


Expect to provide three to five references. References help the social worker form a complete picture of your family and support network. Carefully consider who can provide an honest, robust, engaging reference. Get permission to disclose their names, addresses, and phone numbers to the home study provider or the child-placing agency.

The Home Study Report

The above steps culminate in a written home study report that includes the social worker's findings. The home study report will include some of the following:

  • Family background
  • Education
  • Employment
  • Parenting history
  • Neighborhood

Upon approval of the home study report, the prospective adoptive parents are eligible for placement. If the adoption services agency matches them with a child, they can complete the adoption process.

Benefits of the Home Study Process

The adoption home study process is intense, but it will help a family decide if adoption is a good choice. The process also ensures the placement of children in loving, caring, healthy, and safe environments.

Flexibility and a sense of humor are vital characteristics when raising children. These characteristics are also helpful during the home study process. This is an opportunity to show the home and beautiful attributes of the family to the home study professional.

Want To Learn More About the Adoption Home Study Process? Talk to a Lawyer

Adopting a child can be a wonderful experience for you and the child looking for a family. Adoptive families must follow strict steps before the finalization of an adoption. This includes participating in a home study. If you have questions about adoption or need help with the adoption process, contact an experienced local adoption attorney.

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Can I Solve This on My Own or Do I Need an Attorney?

  • It is a good idea to have an attorney for complex adoptions
  • An attorney can ensure you meet all legal requirements and that your adoption is finalized appropriately
  • An attorney can help protect the best interests of adoptive children, adoptive families, and birth parents
  • For simple adoptions, you may be able to do the paperwork on your own or by using an agency

Get tailored advice at any point in the adoption process. Many attorneys offer free consultations.

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Don't Forget About Estate Planning

Adopting a child is an ideal time to create or change your estate planning forms. Take the time to add new beneficiaries to your will and name a guardian for any minor children. Consider creating a financial power of attorney so your agent can pay bills and make sure your children are provided for. A health care directive explains your health care decisions and takes the decision-making burden off your children when they become adults.

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