The Debt Discharge in Bankruptcy FAQ
By FindLaw Staff | Legally reviewed by Bridget Molitor, J.D. | Last reviewed April 07, 2021
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These questions and answers on debt discharge can help you understand what a Chapter 7 discharge can do for you.
What Is a "Discharge" in Bankruptcy?
A bankruptcy discharge releases the debtor from personal liability for certain specified types of debts. In other words, the debtor is no longer legally required to pay any debts that are discharged.
The discharge is a permanent order prohibiting the debtor's creditors from taking any form of collection action on discharged debts, including legal action and communications with the debtor, such as telephone calls, letters, and personal contacts.
Although a debtor is not personally liable for discharged debts, a valid lien (i.e., a charge upon specific property to secure payment of a debt) that has not been avoided (i.e., made unenforceable) in the bankruptcy case will remain after the bankruptcy case. Therefore, a secured creditor may enforce the lien to recover the property secured by the lien.
When Does the Discharge Occur?
The timing of the discharge varies, depending on the chapter under which the case is filed. In Chapter 7 (liquidation) case, for example, the court usually grants the discharge promptly after:
- The time set for filing a complaint objecting to discharge
- The time set for filing a motion to dismiss the case for substantial abuse (60 days following the first date set for the creditors' meeting)
Typically, this occurs about four months after the date the debtor files the petition with the bankruptcy court clerk. In individual Chapter 11 cases, and in cases under Chapter 12 (adjustment of debts of a family farmer or fisherman) and Chapter 13 (adjustment of debts of an individual with regular income), the court generally grants the discharge as soon as practicable after the debtor completes all payments under the plan.
Since a Chapter 12 or Chapter 13 plan may provide for payments to be made over three to five years, the discharge typically occurs about four years after the date of filing. The court may deny an individual debtor's discharge in Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 cases if the debtor fails to complete "an instructional course concerning financial management."
The Bankruptcy Code provides limited exceptions to the "financial management" requirement if the U.S. trustee or bankruptcy administrator determines there are inadequate educational programs available or if the debtor is disabled or incapacitated or on active military duty in a combat zone.
How Does the Debtor Get a Discharge?
Unless there is litigation involving objections to the discharge, the debtor will usually automatically receive a discharge. The Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure provide for the bankruptcy court clerk to mail a copy of the order of discharge to all creditors, the U.S. trustee, the trustee in the case, and the trustee's attorney, if any.
The debtor and the debtor's attorney also receive copies of the discharge order. The notice, which is simply a copy of the final order of discharge, is not specific as to those debts determined by the court to be non-dischargeable, i.e., not covered by the discharge. The notice informs creditors generally that the debts owed to them have been discharged and that they should not attempt any further collection.
They are cautioned in the notice that continuing collection efforts could subject them to punishment for contempt. Any inadvertent failure on the part of the clerk to send the debtor or any creditor a copy of the discharge order promptly within the time required by the rules does not affect the validity of the order granting the discharge.
Are All of the Debtor's Debts Discharged, or Only Some?
Not all debts are discharged. The Code specifically excepts various categories of debts from the discharge granted to individual debtors. Therefore, the debtor must still repay those debts after bankruptcy. Congress has determined that these types of debts are not dischargeable for public policy reasons (based either on the nature of the debt or the fact that the debts were incurred due to the debtor's improper behavior, such as the debtor's drunken driving).
There are 19 categories of debt excepted from discharge under Chapters 7, 11, and 12. A more limited list of exceptions applies to cases under Chapter 13. The most common types of nondischargeable debts are:
- Certain types of tax claims
- Debts not set forth by the debtor on the lists and schedules the debtor must file with the court
- Debts for spousal or child support or alimony
- Debts for willful and malicious injuries to person or property
- Debts to governmental units for fines and penalties
- Debts for most government-funded or guaranteed educational loans or benefit over-payments
- Debts for personal injury caused by the debtor's operation of a motor vehicle while intoxicated
- Debts owed to certain tax-advantaged retirement plans
- Debts for certain condominium or cooperative housing fees
A slightly broader discharge of debts is available to a debtor in a Chapter 13 case than in a Chapter 7 case. Debts dischargeable in Chapter 13, but not in Chapter 7, include debts for:
- Willful and malicious injury to property
- Debts incurred to pay non-dischargeable tax obligations
- Debts arising from property settlements in divorce or separation proceedings
A Chapter 13 debtor generally receives a discharge only after completing all payments required by the court-approved (i.e., "confirmed") repayment plan. But there are some limited circumstances under which the debtor may request the court to grant a "hardship discharge" even though the debtor has failed to complete plan payments.
Such a discharge is available only to a debtor whose failure to complete plan payments is due to circumstances beyond the debtor's control. The scope of Chapter 13 "hardship discharge," is similar to that in a Chapter 7 case about the types of debts that are excepted from the discharge. A hardship discharge also is available in Chapter 12 if the failure to complete plan payments is due to "circumstances for which the debtor should not justly be held accountable."
Does the Debtor Have the Right to a Discharge or Can Creditors Object to a Discharge?
In Chapter 7 cases, the debtor does not have an absolute right to a discharge. An objection to the debtor's discharge may be filed by a creditor, by the trustee in the case, or by the U.S. trustee.
Creditors receive a notice shortly after the case is filed that sets forth much important information, including the deadline for objecting to the discharge. To object to the debtor's discharge, a creditor must file a complaint in the bankruptcy court before the deadline set out in the notice. Filing a complaint starts a lawsuit referred to in bankruptcy as an "adversary proceeding."
The court may deny a chapter 7 discharge for any of the reasons described in section 727(a) of the Bankruptcy Code, including:
- Failure to provide requested tax documents
- Failure to complete a course on personal financial management
- Transfer or concealment of property with intent to hinder, delay, or defraud creditors
- Destruction or concealment of books or records
- Perjury and other fraudulent acts
- Failure to account for the loss of assets
- Violation of a court order or an earlier discharge in an earlier case commenced within certain time frames (discussed below) before the date the petition was filed
If the issue of the debtor's right to a discharge goes to trial, the objecting party has the burden of proving all the facts essential to the objection.
In Chapter 12 and Chapter 13 cases, the debtor is usually entitled to a discharge upon completing all payments under the plan. As in Chapter 7, however, discharge may not occur in Chapter 13 if the debtor fails to complete a required personal financial management course.
A debtor is also ineligible for a discharge in Chapter 13 if they received a prior discharge in another case commenced within timeframes discussed in the next paragraph.
Unlike Chapter 7, creditors do not have the standing to object to Chapter 12 or Chapter 13 debtor's discharge. Creditors can object to confirmation of the repayment plan but cannot object to the discharge if the debtor has completed making plan payments.
Can a Debtor Receive a Second Discharge in a Later Chapter 7 Case?
The court will deny a discharge in a later Chapter 7 case if the debtor received a discharge under Chapter 7 or Chapter 11 in a case filed within eight years before the second petition is filed.
The court will also deny a Chapter 7 discharge if the debtor previously received a discharge in Chapter 12 or Chapter 13 case filed within six years before the date of the filing of the second case unless:
- The debtor paid all "allowed unsecured" claims in the earlier case in full OR
- The debtor made payments under the plan in the earlier case totaling at least 70% of the allowed unsecured claims, and the debtor's plan was proposed in good faith, and the payments represented the debtor's best effort
A debtor is ineligible for discharge under Chapter 13 if they received a prior discharge in Chapter 7, 11, or 12 cases filed four years before the current case or in a Chapter 13 case filed two years before the current case.
Can the Discharge Be Revoked?
The court may revoke a discharge under certain circumstances. For example, a trustee, creditor, or the U.S. trustee may request that the court revoke the debtor's discharge in a Chapter 7 case based on allegations that the debtor:
- Obtained the discharge fraudulently
- Failed to disclose the fact that he or she acquired or became entitled to acquire property that would constitute property of the bankruptcy estate
- Committed one of several acts of impropriety described in section 727(a)(6) of the Bankruptcy Code
- Failed to explain any misstatements discovered in an audit of the case
- Failed to provide documents or information requested in an audit of the case
Typically, a request to revoke the debtor's discharge must be filed within one year of the discharge or, in some cases, before the date that the case is closed. The court will decide whether such allegations are true and, if so, whether to revoke the discharge.
In Chapter 11, 12, and 13 cases, if confirmation of a plan or the discharge is obtained through fraud, the court can revoke the order of confirmation or discharge.
May the Debtor Pay a Discharged Debt After the Bankruptcy Case Has Been Concluded?
A debtor who has received a discharge may voluntarily repay any discharged debt. A debtor may repay a discharged debt even though it can no longer be legally enforced.
Sometimes a debtor agrees to repay a debt because it is owed to a family member or because it represents an obligation to an individual for whom the debtor's reputation is important, such as a family doctor.
What Can the Debtor Do If a Creditor Attempts To Collect a Discharged Debt After the Case Is Concluded?
If a creditor attempts collection efforts on a discharged debt, the debtor can file a motion with the court, report the action, and ask that the case be reopened to address the matter. The bankruptcy court will often do so to ensure that the discharge is not violated.
The discharge constitutes a permanent statutory injunction prohibiting creditors from taking any action, including filing a lawsuit, designed to collect a discharged debt. The court can sanction a creditor for violating the discharge injunction. The normal sanction for violating the discharge injunction is civil contempt, which is often punishable by a fine.
Can an Employer Terminate a Debtor's Employment Solely Because the Person Was a Debtor or Failed To Pay a Discharged Debt?
The law provides express prohibitions against discriminatory treatment of debtors by both governmental units and private employers. A governmental unit or private employer may not discriminate against a person solely because the person was a debtor, was insolvent before or during the case, or has not paid a debt that was discharged in the case.
The law prohibits the following forms of governmental discrimination against bankruptcy debtors:
- Terminating an employee
- Discriminating concerning hiring
- Denying, revoking, suspending, or declining to renew a license, franchise, or similar privilege
A private employer may not discriminate concerning employment (hiring, promotion, unequal treatment, termination, etc.) if the discrimination is based solely on the bankruptcy filing.
If you have questions, a bankruptcy attorney can help you review your situation and consider if Chapter 7 is right for you.