Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Created by FindLaw's team of legal writers and editors | Last reviewed December 04, 2018
EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is the text of Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-112) (Rehab. Act), as amended, as these sections will appear in volume 29 of the United States Code, beginning at section 791. Section 501 prohibits employment discrimination against individuals with disabilities in the federal sector. Section 505 contains provisions governing remedies and attorney's fees under Section 501. Relevant definitions that apply to sections 501 and 505 follow these sections.
Text of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Section 512 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-336)(ADA) and the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-569) amended definitions applicable to the Rehab. Act. In addition, section 102 of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 (Pub. L. 102-166) (CRA) (which is printed elsewhere in thispublication) amended the statutes by adding a new section following section 1977 (42 U.S.C. 1981), to provide for the recovery of compensatory and punitive damages in cases of intentional violations of Title VII, the ADA, and section501 of the Rehab Act. The Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of2008 (Pub. L. 110-325) (ADAAA) further amended the definition of“individual with a disability.”
Most recently, the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-2) amended Title VII, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the ADA and the Rehab Act to clarify the time frame in which victims of discrimination may challenge and recover for discriminatory compensation decisions or other discriminatory practices affecting compensation.
ADAAA amendments and Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act amendments appear in boldface type. Cross references to the Rehabilitation Act as enacted appear in italics following each section heading. Editor's notes also appear in italics.
SEC. 705 [Section 7]
For the purposes of this chapter:
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(10) Drug and illegal use of drugs
The term “drug” means a controlled substance, as defined in schedules I through V of section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act (21U.S.C. 812).
(B) The term “illegal use of drugs” means the use of drugs, the possession or distribution of which is unlawful under the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.]. Such term does not include the use of a drug taken under supervision by a licensed health care professional, or other uses authorized by the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.] or other provisions of Federal law.
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(20) Individual with a disability
(B) Certain programs; limitations on major life activities
Subject to subparagraphs (C), (D), (E), and (F), the term “individualwith a disability” means, for purposes of sections 701, 711, and 712 of this title and subchapters II, IV, V, and VII of this chapter [29 U.S.C. §§ 760et seq., 780 et seq., 790 et seq., and 796 et seq.], any person who has a disability as defined in section 12102 of Title 42.
(C) Rights and advocacy provisions
(i) In general; exclusion of individuals engaging in drug use
For purposes of subchapter V of this chapter [29 U.S.C. § 790 et seq.], the term “individual with a disability” does not include an individual who is currently engaging in the illegal use of drugs, when a covered entity acts on the basis of such use.
(ii) Exception for individuals no longer engaging in drug use
Nothing in clause (i) shall be construed to exclude as an individual with a disability an individual who--
(I) has successfully completed a supervised drug rehabilitation program and is no longer engaging in the illegal use of drugs, or has otherwise been rehabilitated successfully and is no longer engaging in such use;
(II) is participating in a supervised rehabilitation program and is no longer engaging in such use;
(III) is erroneously regarded as engaging in such use, but is not engaging in such use;
except that it shall not be a violation of this chapter [29 U.S.C. § 701 et seq.] for a covered entity to adopt or administer reasonable policies or procedures, including but not limited to drug testing, designed to ensure that an individual described in subclause (I) or (II) is no longer engaging in the illegal use of drugs.
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(E) Rights provisions; exclusion of individuals on basis of homosexuality or bisexuality For the purposes of sections 791, 793, and 794 of this title--
(i) for purposes of the application of subparagraph (B) to such sections,the term “impairment” does not include homosexuality or bisexuality; and
(ii) therefore the term “individual with a disability” does not include an individual on the basis of homosexuality or bisexuality.
(F) Rights provisions; exclusion of individuals on basis of certain disorders
For the purposes of sections 791, 793, and 794 of this title, the term“individual with a disability” does not include an individual on the basis of--
(i) transvestism, transsexualism, pedophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism,gender identity disorders not resulting from physical impairments, or other sexual behavior disorders;
(ii) compulsive gambling, kleptomania, or pyromania; or
(iii) psychoactive substance use disorders resulting from current illegal use of drugs.
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EMPLOYMENT OF INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES
SEC. 791. [Section 501]
(a) Interagency Committee on Employees who are Individuals with Disabilities; establishment; membership; co-chairmen; availability of other Committee resources; purpose and functions
There is established within the Federal Government an Interagency Committee on Employees who are Individuals with Disabilities (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Committee"), comprised of such members as the President may select, including the following (or their designees whose positions are Executive Level IV or higher): the Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (hereafter in this section referred to as the“Commission"), the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Education, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Either the Director of the Office of Personnel Management and the Chairman of the Commission shall serve as co-chairpersons of the Committee or the Director or Chairman shall serve as the sole chairperson of the Committee, as the Director and Chairman jointly determine, from time to time, to be appropriate. The resources of thePresident’s Committees on Employment of People With Disabilities and on Mental Retardation shall be made fully available to the Committee. It shall be the purpose and function of the Committee (1) to provide a focus for Federal and other employment of individuals with disabilities, and to review, on aperiodic basis, in cooperation with the Commission, the adequacy of hiring,placement, and advancement practices with respect to individuals with disabilities, by each department, agency, and instrumentality in the executive branch of Government and the Smithsonian Institution, and to insure that thes pecial needs of such individuals are being met; and (2) to consult with the Commission to assist the Commission to carry out its responsibilities under subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section. On the basis of such review and consultation, the Committee shall periodically make to the Commission such recommendations for legislative and administrative changes as it deems necessary or desirable. The Commission shall timely transmit to the appropriate committees of Congress any such recommendations.
(b) Federal agencies; affirmative action program plans
Each department, agency, and instrumentality (including the United States Postal Service and the Postal Regulatory Commission) in the executive branch and the Smithsonian Institution shall, within one hundred and eighty days after September 26, 1973, submit to the Commission and to the Committee an affirmative action program plan for the hiring, placement, and advancement of individuals with disabilities in such department, agency, instrumentality, or Institution. Such plan shall include a description of the extent to which and methods whereby the special needs of employees who are individuals with disabilities are being met. Such plan shall be updated annually, and shall be reviewed annually and approved by the Commission, if the Commission determines,after consultation with the Committee, that such plan provides sufficient assurances, procedures and commitments to provide adequate hiring, placement,and advancement opportunities for individuals with disabilities.
(c) State agencies; rehabilitated individuals, employment
The Commission, after consultation with the Committee, shall develop and recommend to the Secretary for referral to the appropriate State agencies,policies and procedures which will facilitate the hiring, placement, and advancement in employment of individuals who have received rehabilitation services under State vocational rehabilitation programs, veterans’programs, or any other program for individuals with disabilities, including the promotion of job opportunities for such individuals. The Secretary shall encourage such State agencies to adopt and implement such policies and procedures.
(d) Report to Congressional committees
The Commission, after consultation with the Committee, shall, on June 30,1974, and at the end of each subsequent fiscal year, make a complete report to the appropriate committees of the Congress with respect to the practices of and achievements in hiring, placement, and advancement of individuals with disabilities by each department, agency, and instrumentality and the Smithsonian Institution and the effectiveness of the affirmative action programs required by subsection (b) of this section, together with recommendations as to legislation which have been submitted to the Commission under subsection (a) of this section, or other appropriate action to insure the adequacy of such practices. Such report shall also include an evaluation by the Committee of the effectiveness of the activities of the Commission under subsections (b) and (c) of this section.
(e) Federal work experience without pay; non-Federal status
An individual who, as a part of an individualized plan for employment under a State plan approved under this chapter, participates in a program of unpaid work experience in a Federal agency, shall not, by reason thereof, be considered to be a Federal employee or to be subject to the provisions of law relating to Federal employment, including those relating to hours of work,rates of compensation, leave, unemployment compensation, and Federal employee benefits.
(f) Federal agency cooperation; special consideration for positions onPresident’s Committee on Employment of People With Disabilities
(1) The Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Education are authorized and directed to cooperate with the President’s Committee on Employment of People With Disabilities in carrying out its functions.
(2) In selecting personnel to fill all positions on the President’sCommittee on Employment of People With Disabilities, special consideration shall be given to qualified individuals with disabilities.
(g) Standards used in determining violation of section
The standards used to determine whether this section has been violated in a complaint alleging nonaffirmative action employment discrimination under this section shall be the standards applied under title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12111 et seq.) and the provisions of sections 501 through 504, and 510, of the Americans with Disabilities Act of1990 (42 U.S.C. 12201-12204 and 12210), as such sections relate to employment.
[42 U.S.C. § 2000e-5 note]
(b) REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973.— The amendments made by section 3 [Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, PL 111-2, 123 Stat. 5] shall apply to claims of discrimination in compensation brought under sections 501and 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791, 794), pursuant to—
(1) sections 501(g) and 504(d) of such Act (29 U.S.C. 791(g),794(d)), respectively, which adopt the standards applied under title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.] for determining whether a violation has occurred in a complaint alleging employment discrimination; and
(2) paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 505(a) of such Act (29 U.S.C.794a(a)) (as amended by subsection (c)).
REMEDIES AND ATTORNEYS’ FEES
SEC. 794a. [Section 505]
(a)(1) The remedies, procedures, and rights set forth in section 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-16), including the application of sections 706(f) through 706(k) (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5(f) through (k)) (andthe application of section 706(e)(3) (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5(e)(3)) to claims of discrimination in compensation), shall be available, with respect to any complaint under section 791 of this title, to any employee or applicant for employment aggrieved by the final disposition of such complaint, or by the failure to take final action on such complaint. In fashioning an equitable or affirmative action remedy under such section, a court may take into account the reasonableness of the cost of any necessary work place accommodation, and the availability of alternatives therefore or other appropriate relief in order to achieve an equitable and appropriate remedy.
(2) The remedies, procedures, and rights set forth in title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) (and in subsection (e)(3)of section 706 of such Act (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5), applied to claims of discrimination in compensation) shall be available to any person aggrieved by any act or failure to act by any recipient of Federal assistance or Federal provider of such assistance under section 794 of this title.
(b) In any action or proceeding to enforce or charge a violation of a provision of this subchapter, the court, in its discretion, may allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney’s fee as part of the costs.
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