What is FMLA? FAQ on Federal Leave Law
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) guarantees eligible employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave each year with no threat of job loss. It also requires that employers covered by the law maintain the health benefits for eligible workers just as if they were working. This law helps prioritize your health and family while also protecting your job.
This law comes in handy if you are sick and need to take a week off work, but you're worried about losing your job if you don't show up. FMLA is a complicated federal leave law, but the following FAQs can help you understand what your rights and responsibilities are under federal law and whether you're covered.
Frequently Asked Questions
- Which employers does FMLA apply to?
- How do I know if I'm eligible for FMLA?
- What sorts of situations qualify for FMLA leave?
- My wife's father has recently become very ill. Can I take FMLA leave to care for him?
- Can I take FMLA leave to care for my 19-year-old son?
- How do employers determine the applicable 12-month period?
- Will I get paid during FMLA leave?
- Can other types of leave count towards my 12-week FMLA leave?
- Can I take FMLA leave to attend my prescribed sessions with a therapist?
- My employer wants proof that I'm really sick. Do I have to provide medical records?
- Can my employer require me to end my leave early?
- Are there limits to what I can and can't do while on FMLA leave?
- My employer has refused to grant my request for leave. Can they do that?
- Can I lose my job if I take FMLA leave?
- If I complain about an FMLA violation, can my employer fire me?
- What about my bonus?
- Get professional legal help with your FMLA concerns
Only those employers that reach the minimum requirements must comply with FMLA. All public agencies must follow FMLA rules, including state, federal, and local employers, as well as schools. For private employers, FMLA applies only to those who employed 50 or more employees for at least 20 workweeks during either the current or previous year.
FMLA only applies to certain employees. First, the employee must work for a covered employer (see the question above). Second, the employee must work for the employer for a minimum of 12 months, and at least 1,250 hours during those 12 months, before taking leave under FMLA. Third, the employee's job must take place at a location where at least 50 employees work, or within 75 miles of such a location.
Covered employers must grant FMLA leave for one or more of the following situations:
- The employee cannot work because of a serious medical condition.
- The employee must care for an immediate family member that has a serious medical condition.
- The birth and/or subsequent care of the employee's child.
- The placement and/or subsequent care of an adopted or foster care child.
- A "qualifying exigency" from the employee's spouse, child, or parent being on active duty or has been called to active duty for the National Guard or Reserve in support of a contingency operation.
Unfortunately, no. FMLA only allows employees to take leave to care for their own parents, not their in-laws. Your wife must be the one to take the leave.
It depends. FMLA will only cover care for children over 18 if the child is "incapable of self-care" because of a serious disability that impacts one of the "major life activities."
FMLA creates four options for employers when calculating the 12-month period they'll use. Employers can select:
- The calendar year;
- A fixed "leave year". This can be based on any 12-month period, such as a fiscal year, or the anniversary of the employee starting with the company;
- A 12-month period beginning with the date that an employee's first FMLA leave begins; or
- A 12-month period that goes backward from the date that an employee's first FMLA leave begins.
FMLA doesn't guarantee any sort of paid leave. An employee can elect to use paid leave that they've accrued, however. Employers can also require an employee to use paid leave as part of the FMLA leave as long as the employer provides the employee with the proper notification.
Yes. If the purpose of the leave meets the requirements for FMLA leave and the employer provides proper notice in writing that they'll consider the leave as part of the employee's yearly FMLA allotment. This sort of situation typically occurs when an employee takes leave based on worker's comp or maternity/paternity.
Yes. FMLA leave covers ongoing treatments by a health care provider, so employees can count therapy sessions that are medically necessary as FMLA leave.
No. An employer can request that you provide some sort of medical certification of your serious medical condition, but you don't have to provide medical records to your employer.
If you fail to provide medical certification of your serious condition, then your employer may be able to cut your leave short. Assuming you've provided the proper certification, however, an employer can't request that you come back to work, even by offering light or part-time work.
You may have to follow your employer's policies on outside employment, but your employer can't otherwise restrict your actions during your leave. This won't apply, however, if the original reason for the leave no longer exists, if you failed to provide medical certification, or if you lied about the reasons for the leave in the first place.
If your employer is covered by FMLA and you're an eligible employee under the statute, then your employer can't deny your request as long as you comply with FMLA's notice and certification requirements and haven't already exhausted your leave for the relevant 12-month period.
No, but there are a few exceptions. Employers can't interfere with the rights conferred under the FMLA, and employers can't use FMLA leave as a negative factor in any employment decisions such as promotions or terminations. Employers can sometimes deny reinstatement to certain highly-paid, salaried workers, known as "key" employees.
No, employers can't retaliate against an employee for alleging a violation of FMLA.
If an employee is eligible for a bonus prior to taking FMLA leave, the employer can't use the leave as a justification for denying the bonus. However, an employer doesn't have to count the time on FMLA towards a bonus or any accrual of benefits or seniority.
Taking time off work for an illness or to care for a family member isn't only crucial to a healthy life but also required by federal leave law, as you learned from the preceding FMLA FAQs. If you've been fired or otherwise retaliated against for taking your federally protected leave, you may want to speak with an experienced employment law attorney about your legal options.
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