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Social Host Liability

Most states have enacted laws holding party hosts liable for any alcohol-related injuries that occur as a result of providing alcohol to minors. This includes injuries to the minor as well as any other individuals whose injuries or death resulted from the minor being provided with alcohol. Some states have more general social host liability laws, which are not limited to just minors but to anyone who was encouraged or allowed to drink excessively to the point where they were injured or killed or caused another's injury or death.

These laws also hold social hosts liable for property damage related to such an incident. To be liable under most state's social host laws the host must have recognized his guest was intoxicated and should not have been served more alcohol. Such laws also apply to other intoxicating substances.

Social host liability laws are similar to so-called dram shop laws, which hold bars and alcohol retailers liable for injuries or deaths related to the actions of severely intoxicated patrons. In fact, some state's dram shop laws (which apply to businesses that provide alcohol) also cover social hosts.

This article provides a general overview of social host liability.

Social Host Liability and Common Law

While common law has generally held that social hosts are not liable for injuries or deaths related to alcohol served to guests (in the absence of specific social host laws), there are some exceptions.

For example, adults typically have a duty to refrain from negligently or intentionally supplying alcohol to minors. Hosts can be found liable for negligence especially if they knew (or should have known) the minor would have driven a car while under the influence.

It is much less common, but not unheard of, for a court to hold hosts liable for the actions of intoxicated adult guests as well (in the absence of specific social host laws). These cases usually involve drunk driving accidents and center on whether the host knew the guest was both intoxicated and would soon be driving an automobile. Such legal actions are often filed as negligence claims.

Adult Responsibility for Underage Drinking

Most social host liability laws are targeted toward reducing alcohol-related injuries and deaths by minors. Specifically, these laws impose a duty of care on party hosts (typically a parent but any adult who is in charge) not to furnish or serve alcohol to minors. To "furnish" alcohol is to merely make it available, while to "serve" alcohol is to "knowingly and affirmatively deliver" alcohol.

State Social Host Laws

Laws imposing liability on social hosts for alcohol-related deaths and injuries vary from state to state, while some states have passed statutes that explicitly give immunity to social hosts. Eighteen states have general social host liability statutes and nine states have social host laws specific to minors, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).

States with social host liability laws applicable to guests of all ages:

  • Alaska
  • Arkansas
  • Connecticut
  • Hawaii
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Missouri
  • New Jersey
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Washington
  • Wisconsin

New Jersey's statute holds social hosts liable for third-party injuries caused by a guest who is "visibly intoxicated" where "the injuries are the result of negligent operation of a vehicle by the guest." New Jersey courts have held that "provide" includes self-service by guests. However, social hosts are not liable for injuries sustained by the guest (only the third party).

States with social host liability laws applicable only to minors:

  • Alabama
  • Arizona
  • Florida
  • Illinois
  • Kansas
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • Utah
  • Wyoming

The Illinois statute called the "Drug or Alcohol Impaired Minor Responsibility Act," holds adults 18 and older "who willfully supply alcohol beverages or illegal drugs" to minors (under 18) liable for injuries or deaths resulting from their impairment. The law covers both the intoxicated minor and any third parties, applicable to an adult host "who sells, gives, or delivers" illegal drugs or alcohol.

Questions About Social Host Liability? Talk to an Attorney

Social host liability varies significantly depending on the jurisdiction, while your ability to collect on a social host claim largely depends on the facts of your case. It can all get quite confusing, particularly for non-attorneys.

For this reason, you should consider having an experienced personal injury attorney review your case and explain your rights and options.

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