Tenant Lease Agreement FAQs
Learn about these commonly asked questions about tenant lease agreements:
- Does a rental agreement or a lease have to be in writing?
- What should a lease agreement say?
- What provisions are prohibited in residential rental agreements and leases?
- What happens if my lease has prohibited provisions?
- Is there a difference between a rental agreement and a lease?
- Are there limits on how much a landlord can charge for a security deposit?
- What can a landlord use a security deposit for?
- Under what circumstances can a landlord raise the rent in a rent-controlled property?
- Under what circumstances can a landlord evict a tenant from a rent-controlled property?
No. Most states recognize oral leases or rental agreements that are for a year or less. However, oral agreements often lead to ambiguity about the obligations of each party since memories fade over time. Having your lease term in writing is a safer bet.
A written agreement will define the obligations and rights of the tenant and the landlord. A tenant lease agreement or rental agreement should include:
- The names of the tenants and the landlords
- The address of the rental unit, including the apartment number
- The term of the tenant's occupancy, including move in and move out dates
- The rent amount and utility bills the tenant will pay
- The amount of the security deposit for each new tenant
- Whether the tenant can have pets
- Any "house rules" the landlord requires (such as quiet hours or rules for shared living spaces)
- Whether parking spaces are available
- Rules on parking or stays for overnight guests
- Whether subletting or having a sublease or co-tenant is allowed
- How many people may live in the rental unit
- The reasons the landlord may enter the unit
- The party responsible for paying the legal fees when a dispute arises
- Who is responsible for finding replacement tenants
Rental and lease agreement forms are usually available at office supply stores and in books about landlord and tenant rights, or in FindLaw's form store.
State laws vary, but rental property agreements and leases may not contain certain provisions. The most common prohibited provisions include:
- The exclusion of tenants based on race, color, national origin, or sex
- The prohibition of children, unless the property is a senior housing facility
- A tenant waiver of the right to sue the landlord
- A tenant waiver of the right to a refund of a security deposit
- A waiver of the landlord's duty to keep the premises habitable
In some states, when a landlord includes provisions prohibited by law, the lease or rental agreement is invalidated. The tenant may be able to recover damages and attorney fees if the landlord was aware that the provisions violated the law.
Yes. A rental agreement, or a periodic or month-to-month agreement, is a written contract for a short-term tenancy. Most rental agreements are for 30-days but can be for other periods. With a short-term tenancy, the landlord may also change the rental terms, such as the rent amount, by providing proper notice to the tenant.
A lease agreement, or a fixed-term lease, is a written contract for a tenancy that is usually six months or a year. For the term of the tenancy, the rights and obligations defined in the tenant lease agreement cannot change until:
- The term expires
- The tenant's agreement in writing
When the lease expires, the parties may:
- Create a new lease
- Decline to renew the lease
- Remain in the rental unit but the tenancy automatically becomes a month-to-month agreement
In at least half of the states, a landlord may not require the tenant to pay more than one to two times the rent for a security deposit. An example is a rent costing $500, so the security deposit could be anything less than $1,000.
In many states, the landlord must place the security deposit in a separate account, and in some cases, the landlord must even pay the tenant interest on the deposit.
A landlord may charge the tenant a security deposit to cover the cost of:
- Unpaid rent
- Cleaning dirt and grime
- Repairs beyond normal wear and tear
Once the tenant moves out, the landlord can use the deposit to make repairs that did not result from "ordinary wear and tear." A landlord, for instance, may not charge a tenant to replace a worn hallway carpet but can charge the tenant for the cost of fixing large holes in the wall.
The landlord must return any unused portion of the security deposit within the time specified by a state's guidelines.
Rent control laws limit the amount a landlord can charge for rent and the reasons for terminating a tenancy. California, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and the District of Columbia are the only states with rent control laws.
Rent control boards, either elected by voters or appointed by the mayor or the city council, determine the amount of rental increases. Rent controlled properties are usually limited to older buildings built before a specific time.
Rent control ordinances allow a landlord to increase the rent under certain conditions. The most common include:
- Annual rent increases. The rent control board sets the amount, usually a percentage, that a landlord can increase the rent each year.
- Increased operating costs. A landlord may request the board to approve a rent increase when the cost of maintenance or property taxes have risen.
- "Vacancy decontrol" when a tenant vacates the property or renews the lease. A landlord may raise the rent as much as allowed by a specified percentage or by as much as the landlord determines.
Rent control ordinances also control when a landlord can evict a tenant. Typically, ordinances allow eviction under a few circumstances:
- The tenant violates a tenant lease agreement or rental agreement term, such as skipping rent payments
- The landlord plans to change the living situation, such as living in the unit themselves
- The tenant or a new roommate is a nuisance or engages in illegal activity
- The property will no longer be used as a rental
A landlord may not evict a tenant unless there is a legal reason for eviction.
Need Help with a Tenant Lease Agreement? Contact a Local Attorney
Don't figure out the basics of writing an enforceable lease agreement on your own. If you or someone you know is either a landlord struggling to write a valid lease or a tenant looking to make sure a lease is legal, an experienced landlord-tenant lawyer can help ease your concerns.
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