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Water Damage and Neighbor Disputes

Water Damage and Neighbor Disputes

Water can into those areas of our home that are most vulnerable and causing the most mayhem possible. When water damage may have been caused by a neighbor, serious disputes can arise.

Surface Water

In general, a neighbor will not be responsible for damage to your property caused by runoff from naturally occurring rain and land conditions. If your neighbor has landscaped his land, however, or altered his property in some other way that causes more water to run onto your land than would otherwise naturally occur, then you may have some recourse to recover for the damage. Generally speaking, there are three different types of laws that may allow you to put liability on your neighbor for the surface water damage to your property.

Reasonable Use Rule -- A majority of states follow the reasonableness approach. In order to succeed in a lawsuit against a neighbor, you will need proof showing that your neighbor did something to his land or property, that the alteration was unreasonable, and that the alteration changed the natural flow of water onto your property.

Some general factors typically help courts in their judgment. These factors may include:

  • How important the alteration was.
  • Whether the increased damage from surface runoff was reasonably foreseeable to your neighbor at the time the alteration was made.
  • The comparison of the damage to your property versus the increased use or value of your neighbor's property.

Common Enemy Rule -- This rule was derived from English Common Law and treats rainwater and other natural sources of water as a common enemy to all landowners. Under this rule, followed by many states, each landowner is expected to protect his or her own land from surface and runoff water. Landowners can take whatever steps they wish, such as building dikes or drainage ditches. If surface water runs from your neighbor's land onto your land, causing more damage than natural, you are still expected to protect your land from this water.

Many states that still follow the common enemy rule, however, have modified it to make it less strict. Under these modified rules, you may still be able to hold your neighbor liable for damage to your property if the modification (protection) of your neighbor's property was negligent.

Civil Law Rule -- This rule can be considered the opposite of the common enemy rule. The civil law rule, also known as the Natural Flow Rule, imposes liability on any landowner that changes his or her land in a way that changes the natural flow of surface water across the land.

Like the common enemy rule, the civil law rule has been modified in most states that follow it. Much like the reasonable use rule, states that follow the civil law rule allow modifications of land so long as the modification is reasonable. Under the modified civil law rule, however, the owner of the land seeing the increased harm may also be expected to take reasonable measures to protect his or her land from damage due to the increased surface water.

Careless Water Damage

If your property has been damaged because of the carelessness or negligence of your neighbor, you may be able to collect compensation for your damage and losses. You may also get a court order that directs your neighbor to stop doing whatever it is that has caused water damage to your property.

Careless water damage is often the result of simple accidents and forgetfulness. Sources of these types of damages include leaking or broken water hoses, leaky sprinkler heads, broken, frozen or burst water pipes, and even clogged rain gutters.

What Damages Must Be Paid?

If you can prove that your neighbor is responsible for water damage that you suffered, you may be able to collect damages for:

  • The cost of repairs or replacement of water damaged property
  • The cost of staying at a hotel while your home is uninhabitable because of water damage
  • Any medical bills directly related to the water damage, either for physical injury or mental distress
  • Punitive damages if you can show that your neighbor acted maliciously

You may be able to get a judge to issue a court order that directs your neighbor to fix the problem. Judges are more likely to issue such an order if the fix or repair is minor. The more extensive the repair, however, the less likely it is that a judge will issue such an order.


There are two types of insurance that may cover you if your home or property has been damaged by water -- homeowner's insurance and flood insurance. If your property was damaged by water that had its source within your home then your homeowner's insurance should be able to cover it.

If the water damage comes from an outside source of rising water, however, homeowner's insurance may not be adequate. In these situations, it would be wise to have flood insurance, even if the damage was caused, at least in part, by a neighbor. In addition, you may be able to collect damages from your neighbor's insurance company.

Learn More About Water Damage and Neighbor Disputes from a Lawyer

Disputes with neighbors are best resolved quickly to minimize conflict. Knowing your rights can help make your negotiations simple, practical, and predictable. Contact a skilled real estate attorney near you to learn about local land and water laws to ensure your dispute is resolved efficiently.

You Don’t Have To Solve This on Your Own – Get a Lawyer’s Help

Meeting with a lawyer can help you understand your options and how to best protect your rights. Visit our attorney directory to find a lawyer near you who can help.

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