The Help America Vote Act of 2002
Voting is one of the fundamental rights of U.S. citizens enshrined in the Constitution. Congress also drafted rules to govern the electoral process. One of the essential laws is the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA).
Voting is one of the fundamental rights of U.S. citizens enshrined in the Constitution. It's how Americans make their voices heard in this democratic country.
To ensure a fair and honest election, both state and federal laws addressed the issue. Congress also drafted rules to govern the electoral process. One of the essential laws is the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA). Congress passed HAVA in 2002 to improve the electoral process and expand voting access nationwide.
Enhancing Election Administration Practices
In 1971, the U.S. Congress began the establishment of the National Clearinghouse for Information on Election Administration. This move was a part of the Federal Election Campaign Act. The Act addressed the lack of efficient information exchange among election administrators nationwide.
In 1975, Federal Election Campaign Act amendments transferred the functions of the National Clearinghouse to the Federal Election Commission (FEC). The revised Act calls upon the FEC to operate as "a national clearinghouse for the compilation of information and review of procedures about the administration of Federal elections."
The Clearinghouse arranged its activities into six program areas:
- Public speaking
- Election legislation
- Voting system standards
- Voting accessibility
Modernizing U.S. Elections: The Impact of HAVA
In 2002, the U.S. Congress enacted the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) to create sweeping reforms to the nationwide voting process. HAVA addressed the issues of voter access and voting systems seen after the 2000 election. During the 2000 election, issues about the vote count in Florida caused delays in the presidential election's outcome. This incident triggered improvements in the electoral process. It also led to the expansion of technology and voting access nationwide.
HAVA's Inclusive and Modern Voting Systems
The Help America Vote Act of 2002 allocates federal funds to states. This funding aims to modernize the voting system across the country. States receiving this funding should phase out punch cards and lever voting machines. They should likewise meet the following federal mandates:
- The voting machines should allow voters to cast their votes independently and privately. Voters should have the right to correct or change their ballots before election officials count them.
- The States should ensure that at least one of the voting machines at each polling place meets the conditions for improved accessibility for voters with disabilities.
- The voting system should create a paper trail for manual recounts and audits.
- States must have voting materials in multiple languages – ballots, sample ballots, absentee ballots, voter registration, instructional forms, etc. It should follow Section 203 of the Voting Rights Act.
HAVA instructs states to implement the following programs and procedures:
- Administrative complaint procedures
- Provisional voting
- Statewide voter registration databases
- Updated and upgraded voting equipment
- Voter identification procedures
- Voting information
HAVA's Commissions and Committees
HAVA also established the commissions and committees below.
The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC)
Section 803 of HAVA transferred the functions of the National Clearinghouse to the U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC).
HAVA mandates that the EAC acts as the central hub and resource of information. It should also check procedures relating to the management of federal elections. Subject matter experts and former election officials comprise the EAC. These experts work with EAC staff to furnish materials that address the demands of the electoral process. The other responsibilities of EAC include:
- Operating voting program tests and certifying voting systems
- Auditing use of HAVA accounts
- Maintaining the national mail voter registration form
- Administering a national clearinghouse on elections
Federal Advisory Boards
The EAC created the three HAVA-mandated federal advisory committees to assist in carrying out the mandates under HAVA. They are:
- The Standards Board
- The Board of Advisors
- The Technical Guidelines Development Committee
Each of these federal advisory committees comprises experts and representatives of the U.S. government.
Help America Vote College Program
HAVA authorizes Help America Vote College Program grants. This program has boosted student participation as poll workers. This, in turn, aims to foster the students' interests in the election process. This prompted local governments and state officials to use students as poll workers.
Voter Identification Requirements
The Help America Vote Act covers many aspects of elections and imposes ID requirements. HAVA mandates that newly registered voters (voters who have not registered to vote before 2002 or are re-registering in a different county or location since that time) must provide either a driver's license or the last four digits of their Social Security number at the time of registration. If first-time voters don't have either of these forms of identification, they must provide proof of identity at the polling place when they vote.
It's also crucial to learn if you're eligible to vote. You should also be a registered voter. Voter registration can be done by mail, online, or in person at the specified locations by your election office.
Note that the exact voter registration process may differ in every jurisdiction. But often, election officials will ask you to provide personal information such as your name, address, and other identification details.
Types of Acceptable Voter Identification
The following are examples of documents allowed to establish identity at a voting booth. Some states may require one or more of certain types of these documents:
- Driver's license or state ID card
- Employee ID
- Student ID
- Military ID
- Utility bills
- Bank statements
- Concealed handgun licenses
The types of acceptable identification vary from state to state. Some states require a valid photo identification, while others have more lenient rules.
Proposals To Revisit HAVA
Decades after the implementation of HAVA, proposals were made to reconsider the legislative response to the issues with election law. Some of the proposals to revisit HAVA include legislation that would do the following:
- Set certain rules for creating auditable paper records in voting systems
- Create standards to match voter registration data
- Expand or limit the requirements for voter identification
- Revisit the enforcement mechanism of HAVA, particularly when addressing ambiguities and ensuring compliance with election laws
- Proposal to terminate or expand the EAC (this reflects differing views on the EAC's role in the election administration)
Know Your Rights
Past HAVA violations have typically involved whether states or specific polling locations have established the systems and provided adequate resources to voters, as the law requires. This often involves assessing whether polling booths had enough information posted. It also involves assessing whether people without voter ID who voted or failed to vote using provisional ballots received enough information.
It's important to find out if you have experienced violations of election laws, improper application of voter ID rules, or other voting issues related to HAVA. Contact a civil rights attorney in your area today. Civil rights attorneys can help you understand the important steps to participate in the democratic process.